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UNDANG-UNDANG KESIHATAN PEKERJAAN DI MALAYSIA: APAKAH SELARAS DENGAN PIAWAIAN ILO?

Che Thalbi Md. Ismail

chet1048@uum.edu.my

Pusat Pengajian Undang-undang

Kolej Undang-undang Kerajaan dan Pengajian Antarabangsa

Universiti Utara Malaysia

Abstrak

Penjagaan kesihatan di tempat kerja yang sempurna bukan sahaja merupakan satu liabiliti majikan dalam sesuatu industri tetapi juga aset sesebuah industri untuk menarik pekerja supaya setia berkhidmat. Di Malaysia, pembentukan Akta Kilang dan Jentera 1967 (AKJ 1967) dan peraturan di bawahnya merupakan satu permulaan yang baik dalam perkembangan penggubalan undang-undang kesihatan. Kemudian Akta Keselamatan dan Kesihatan Pekerjaan 1994 (AKKP 1994) pula dibentuk dan bersifat pelengkap untuk merangkumi peraturan umum kepada hampir semua jenis perusahaan dan meletakkan liabiliti menjaga keselamatan dan kesihatan kepada banyak pihak selain majikan. Walau bagaimanapun, persoalan timbul sama ada undangundang yang dibentuk ini memenuhi hasrat dan piawaian yang diletakkan oleh Pertubuhan Buruh Antarabangsa (ILO) melalui konvensyennya. Oleh itu, satu analisis kualitatif dibuat terhadap statut berkaitan dengan perlindungan keselamatan dan kesihatan pekerjaan di Malaysia, iaitu akta tersebut dan peraturannya. Perbincangan terhadap common law juga dibuat kerana pemakaian undang-undang ini dibenarkan di Malaysia di bawah Akta Undang-undang Sivil 1956. Objektif ILO untuk menetapkan piawaian yang tertentu bagi penjagaan kesihatan pekerja menerusi konvensyen yang diadakan di seluruh dunia, namun, pemakaian konvensyen ini tidak diwajibkan kepada mana-mana negara di dunia. Oleh yang demikian, makalah ini akan mengupas tentang undang-undang penjagaan kesihatan di Malaysia dan seterusnya mendapati bahawa ia adalah harmoni dengan ILO walaupun ratifikasi dibuat terhadap konvensyen tersebut.

Kata kunci: penjagaan kesihatan, tempat kerja, Konvensyen ILO.

Abstract

Healthcare at the work place is not merely an employer’s duty in an industry but, it is also an asset to attract workers’ loyalty. In Malaysia, the Factory and Machinery Act 1967and its regulations was a good start in the development of occupational health laws. When the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 was drafted, this completed the laws by governing almost all industries and also imposes the liability of health and work safety, not only on employers, but also other parties. Nevertheless, a question arises whether this law conforms to the standard set out by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) through the Conventions. Hence, a qualitative analysis is undertaken on the relevant statutes in Malaysia, which govern the occupational health and safety protection, namely the above Acts supported by various regulations made thereunder. As common law is duly practised and applied in Malaysia was under section 3 and 5 Civil Law Act 1956, its relevance will also be discussed. While the ILO sets out certain standard or benchmark for workers’ healthcare imposed through the Conventions, it is however, not compulsory for its member states to apply these Conventions. This article thus elaborates onhow the occupational health law in Malaysia is in harmony with the ILO despite the non-ratification of the said Conventions.

Keywords: healthcare, workplace, ILO Conventions

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