Jurnal Kanun

Just another WordPress site

NAFKAH SAUDARA SEDARAH SESISI (HAWASHI) DALAM UNDANG-UNDANG ISLAM DI MALAYSIA

(Maintenance for Blood Relatives (Collaterals) under Islamic Law in Malaysia)

Badruddin Hj Ibrahim

badruddin@iium.edu.m

Azizah Mohd*

azizahmohd@iium.edu.my

Siti Zainab Abd Rashid

szainab@iium.edu.my

Kulliyah Undang-undang Ahmad Ibrahim,

Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia.

Terbit dalam talian (published online): 2 Julai 2020

Sila rujuk: Hj Ibrahim. B., Mohd, A. dan Abd Rashid, S.Z. (2020). Nafkah Saudara Sedarah Sesisi dalam Undang-undang Islam di Malaysia. Kanun: Jurnal Undang-undang Malaysia, 32(2), 319-339.

Abstrak

Dalam Islam, saudara sedarah sesisi (hawashi) merupakan satu lagi kategori orang-orang yang berhak menerima nafkah daripada saudara-mara mereka terutama ketika keadaan memerlukan atau ketika mereka tidak berkemampuan menanggung nafkah diri mereka sendiri sedangkan dalam masa yang sama mempunyai saudara-mara lain yang berkemampuan dan kaya raya. Kajian ini membicarakan tentang  “nafkah” kepada saudara sesisi (hawashi) sebagai satu instrumen untuk memastikan perlindungan berterusan kepada saudara-mara di dalam undang-undang Islam. Perbincangan merangkumi pandangan fuqaha tentang nafkah hawashi dalam Islam serta asas tanggungjawab untuk menanggung saudara-mara termasuklah prinsip-prinsip dalam al-Quran dan sunah Rasulullah SAW, dan perbincangan ulama kontemporari terhadap sejauh mana tanggungjawab seseorang untuk menanggung saudara-mara. Seterusnya, kajian ini juga akan meneliti pemakaian undang-undang Islam di Malaysia yang berkaitan dengan tanggungjawab menanggung nafkah saudara-mara. Bagi tujuan perbandingan, perbincangan juga akan merangkumi Peruntukan undang-undang tentang nafkah saudara mara di beberapa buah negara-negara Islam. Kajian ini secara umumnya menggunakan metode kajian perpustakaan dan menganalisis kitab-kitab fiqah dan peruntukan undang-undang tentang nafkah hawashi. Hasil kajian ini dirasakan amat penting bagi tujuan penambahbaikan peruntukan undang-undang Islam tentang nafkah yang sedia ada di Malaysia.

Kata kunci:  Nafkah, undang-undang Islam, nafkah adik-beradik, saudara sedarah sesisi (hawashi), undang-undang syariah Malaysia, negara-negara Islam

Abstract

Under Islamic law, blood relatives from among hawashi (collateral kin) fall into the category of those who deserve nafaqah (maintenance), especially whenever they are in need or when they are incapable of maintaining themselves, while at the same time having relatives who are capable and well off. This research discusses maintenance for collateral relatives as an instrument to ensure continuous protection of relatives under Islamic law. The discussion includes the views of the fuqaha on maintenance to hawashi in Islam. It also reviews the basis for the responsibility to maintain relatives including relevant principles in the Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet SAW, the discussion and views of contemporary fuqaha (Islamic jurists) on the extent of a person’s responsibility to maintain relatives. Further, this research also analyses the application of Islamic law in Malaysia in relation to one’s responsibility to maintain relatives. For the purpose of comparison, discussion will also include provisions of the law on maintenance for relatives in several Muslim countries. The research was conducted through library research and analysing the treatises of Muslim jurists, as well as the provisions of Islamic law on maintenance for collateral relatives. The findings of this research are deemed significant to improve the existing provisions on Islamic law relating to maintenance in Malaysia.

Keywords: Nafaqah, Islamic law, sibling maintenance, hawashi, Malaysian sharia law, Muslim countries

RUJUKAN

Akta Undang-undang (Wilayah-Wilayah Persekutuan) 1984.

‘Ala-addin Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Sulayman al-Mardawi al-Damsyiki al-Mazhab Hanbali. (t.t.). Al-Insaf fi Ma’rifat al-Rajih min al-Khilaf (Edisi Kedua). Beirut: Dar Ihya al-Turath.

Abu Dawud, Sulayman ibn al-Ash’ath ibn Ishaq ibn Bashir ibn Shaddad ibn ‘Amru al-Azdi al-Sijistani. (t.t.). Sunan Abi Dawud. Beirut: al-Maktabah al-‘Asriyyah.

Ahmad ibn Ali Abu Bakr al-Razi al-Jassas al-Mazhab Hanafi. (1405H). Ahkam al-Quran. Beirut: Dar Ihya al-Turath.

Ahmad Muhammad Ismail Barraj. (2013). Al-Dhaman al-Ijtima’I fi al-Fiqh al-Islami, Iskandariyyah; Dar al-Jami’ah al-Jadidah.

al-Ba’albaki. (1994.) R. Al-Mawrid, Modern Arabic English Dictionary (Edisi Keenam). Dar al-‘Ilmi li al-Malayin.

al-Bahuti, Mansur ibn Yunus ibn Solahuddin ibn Hassan ibn Idris al-Mazhab Hanbali. (t.t.). Kashshaf al-Qana’ ‘an Matn al-Iqna’. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah.

al-Hattab al-Ru’aini, Shamsuddin Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Abdurrahman al-Tarablusi. (1992). Mawahib al-Jalil fi Sharh Mukhtasar Khalil (Edisi Ketiga) Beirut: Dar al-Fikr.

al-Kasani, ‘Ala-addin Abu Bakr ibn Mas’ud ibn Ahmad al- Kasani al-Mazhab Hanafi. (1986). Badai’ al-Sanai’ fi Tartib al-Sharai’ (Edisi Kedua). Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah.

al-Khatib al-Sharbini, Shamsuddin Muhammad ibn Ahmad. (1994). Mughni al-Muhtaj ila Ma’rifah Ma’ani Alfaz al-Minhaj. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah.

al-Nawawi, Abu Zakariyya Mahyuddin Yahya ibn Sharaf. (1991). Rawdah al-Talibin wa ‘Umdah al-Muftin (Edisi Ketiga). Beirut: al-Maktab al-Islami.

al-Nasa-ie, Abu Abdurrahman Ahmad ibn Shu’aib ibn Ali al-Khurasani. (1986). Al-Sunan al-Sughra li an-Nasa-ie. (Edisi Kedua). Halab: Maktab al-Matbu’aat al-Islamiyyah.

al-Shirazi, Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Ali ibn Yusuf. (t.t.). Al-Muhadhdhab fi al-Fiqh al-Imam Al-Shafi’e. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah.

Enakmen Undang-undang Keluarga Islam (Negeri Sembilan) 2003.

Fakhruddin al-Zayla’ie, ‘Uthman ibn ‘Ali ibn Muhjan al-Bari’ie al-Mazhab Hanafi. (1312H). Tabyin al-Haqaiq Sharh Kanz al-Daqaiq. Kaherah: Maktabah al-Kubra al-Amiriyyah.

Ibn al-Humam, Kamaluddin Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-Wahid al-Siwasi. (t.t.). Fath al-Qadir. Beirut: Dar al-Fikr.

Ibn Nujaym al-Misri, Zainuddin ibn Ibrahim ibn Muhammad. (t.t.). Al-Bahr al-Raiq Sharh Kanz al-Daqaiq (Edisi Kedua). n.p.: Dar al-Kitab al-Islami.

Ibn Qudamah al-Maqdisi, Abu Muhammad Muwafiquddin Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Mazhab Hanbali. (1994). Al-Kafi fi Fiqh al-Imam Ahmad. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah.

Ibn Qudamah al-Maqdisi, Abu Muhammad Muwafiquddin Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Mazhab Hanbali. (t.t.). Al-Mughni. Kaherah: Maktabah Kaherah.

Kassim bin Othman & Fatimah binti Salleh lwn Raja Suzana binti Raja Kasim & Zul Azli bin Hashim, (2010) 30 JH(2), 299.

Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn ‘Arafah al-Dusuqi. (t.t.). Hashiah al-Dusuqi ‘ala al-Sharh al-Kabir. Beirut: Dar al-Fikr.

Muhammad ‘Aqalah (2010), Nizam al-Usrah fi al-Islam. Juzuk 3, Cetakan keempat. Amman: Maktabah al-Risalah al-Hadithah.

Muhammad Mustafa Shalabi. (1977). Ahkam al-Usrah fi al-Islam. Beirut: Dar al-Nahdah al-‘Arabiyyah.

Mustafa al-Khin, Mustafa al-Bugha, & Ali al-Shurbaji. (1992). Al-Fiqh al-Manhaji ‘ala Mazhab al-Imam al-Shafi’e (Edisi Keempat). Damsyik: Dar al-Qalam.

Nasiruddin al-Khattab. (2007). English Translation of Sunan An-Nasa-ie. Riyadh: Darussalam.

Qanun Ittihadi (UAE) 2005.

Rashad Hasan Khalil. (1987). Nafaqat al-Aqarib fi al-Fiqh al-Islami. Kaherah: Dar al-Manar.

Undang-Undang Keluarga Iraq 1959.

Undang-Undang Keluarga Qatar 2006.

Wizarah al-Awqaf wa al-Shu’un al-Islamiyyah. (2002). Al-Mawsu’ah al-Fiqhiyyah. Kuwait: Wizarah al-Awqaf wa al-Shu’un al-Islamiyyah.

Zakariyya ibn Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Ansari. (t.t.). Asna al-Matalib fi Sharh Rawd al-Talib. N.p.: Da al-Kitab Islami.

Zaki al-Din Sha’aban. (1993). Al-Ahkam al-Shar’iyyah li al-Ahwal al-Shakhsiyyah (6th Edition). Banghazi. Jami’ah Qaryunis.

[Teks Penuh]

Hantar Maklum Balas Anda