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RATIFIKASI KONVENSYEN PERTUBUHAN BANGSA-BANGSA BERSATU TERHADAP HAK ORANG KURANG UPAYA: IMPLIKASI DAN REALITI DARI DIMENSI PERUNDANGAN DAN KESAMARATAAN

(Ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: Implication and Reality From A Legal Dimension and Equality of Rights)

Norita Azmi*

azmi.norita69@gmail.com

Salawati Mat Basir

salawati@ukm.edu.my

Fakulti undang-undang,

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

Terbit dalam talian (published online): 1 Julai 2020

Sila rujuk: Azmi, N. dan Mat Basir, S. (2020). Ratifikasi Konvensyen Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu terhadap Hak Orang Kurang Upaya: Implikasi dan Realiti dari Dimensi Perundangan dan Kesamarataan. Kanun: Jurnal Undang-undang Malaysia, 32(2), 297-319.

Abstrak

Pelbagai isu berkaitan dengan orang kurang upaya (OKU) di negara ini terus-menerus menerima kritikan dan perdebatan memandangkan pelaksanaannya adalah sangat perlahan dan lemah. OKU mempunyai hak untuk hidup seperti insan normal yang lain termasuk perlindungan ketika dalam situasi berisiko dan kecemasan. Antara mekanisme penting menjaga kebajikan OKU ini adalah melalui perundangan.Kerajaan telah menandatangani Konvensyen PertubuhanBangsa-Bangsa Bersatu (PBB) berkaitan Hak-hak Orang Kurang upaya (OKU) sebagai salah satu usaha memperkasa dan melindungi kelompok minoriti ini. Kerajaan telah mengambil inisiatif dengan menggubal Akta Orang Kurang upaya 2008 dan meratifikasikan Konvesyen berkaitan Hak-hak Orang Kurang upaya (OKU) pada tahun 2010 sebagai salah satu komitmen kerajaan untuk mematuhi konvensyen hak asasi antarabangsa selagi tidak bertentangan dengan Perlembagaan Persekutuan. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk mengupas dan menganalisis peruntukan undang-undang di Malaysia berkaitan dengan OKU dan hak untuk hidup menerusi Perlembagaan Persekutuan dan peruntukan undang-undang yang releven. Justifikasinya, hal ini memperlihatkan Malaysia sebagai salah satu anggota atau ahli PBB terpaksa menerima pakai undang-undang dan triti antarabangsa berkaitan hak asasi manusia sekiranya tidak bertentangan dengan norma dan nilai tempatan. Pada akhir perbincangan isu ini, dilontarkan beberapa idea sebagai penyelesaian kepada kerajaan untuk menambah baik isu OKU ini agar pada kaca mata masyarakat dunia, Malaysia diiktiraf antara negara yang benar-benar menjaga dan membela nasib OKU seperti dalam Deklarasi dan ratifikasi yang dipersetujui oleh negara ahli dalam Konvensyen PBB berkaitan Hak-hak Orang Kurang Upaya 2008.

Kata kunci: Ratifikasi, Konvensyen Hak-Hak Orang Kurang Upaya (OKU), hak sama rata, hak asasi antarabangsa, undang-undang Malaysia.

Abstract

Issues related to the disabled right in the country continue to attract criticism and debate, as implementation is very slow and weak. The disabled have the right to live like other normal people, which includes protection in times of danger and emergency. One of the important mechanism for the care of the disabled is through legal means. The government has signed the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) as part of its efforts to empower and protect this minority group. As such, the government has taken the initiative to enact the Persons with Disabilities Act 2008 and ratified the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) in 2010 as one of the government’s commitments in complying with international human rights conventions as long these do not against the Federal Constitution. This article aims to uncover and analyse the legal provisions in Malaysia relating to the disabled and their right to live, as stated in the Federal Constitution and relevant legal provisions. In essence, this shows that Malaysia, as a member of the UN, is bound to adopt international laws and treaties on human rights if these do not violate local norms and values. At the end of the discussion, some ideas are presented as solutions for the government to improve the issue of disabled persons so that in the eyes of the world, Malaysia will be recognized as one of the countries that cares for and defends its disabled, in line with the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2008.

Keywords: Ratification, Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2008 (CRPD), Equality, International human rights, Malaysian Laws

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