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ANCAMAN TORT KECERDASAN BUATAN TERHADAP MANUSIA: RETORIK ATAU REALITI?

(The Threats of Artificial Intelligence in Tort:

Rhetoric or Reality?)

*Nazura Abdul Manap

nazura@edu.ukm.my

Azrol Abdullah

azrolabdullah@gmail.com

Fakulti Undang-Undang,

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

Terbit dalam talian (published online): 3 Januari 2020

Sila rujuk: Nazura Abdul Manap dan Azrol Abdullah. (2020). Ancaman tort kecerdasan buatan (AI) terhadap manusia: Retorik atau realiti? Kanun: Jurnal Undang-undang Malaysia, 32(1), 1-28.

Abstrak

Di sebalik kemampuan artificial intelligent (AI) atau kecerdasan buatan yang memberangsangkan, AI tidak boleh lari daripada melakukan kesilapan dalam membuat keputusan. Penulisan ini bertujuan untuk menerangkan tentang kelemahan undang-undang tort dalam usaha menangani ancaman yang berpunca daripada AI. Penulisan ini turut membincangkan tentang perkembangan AI di Malaysia untuk menilai sejauh manakah Malaysia bersedia untuk berdepan dengan ancaman perundangan AI. Metodologi kajian yang digunakan dalam penulisan ini berbentuk kualitatif. Data yang disandarkan dalam penulisan ini berpandukan pada prinsip undang-undang tort sedia ada, kes-kes terdahulu yang telah diputuskan oleh mahkamah, penulisan jurnal dan sumber perundangan dalam talian. Kesimpulan yang boleh dibuat berdasarkan analisis daripada data yang diperoleh mendapati bahawa AI membawa satu bentuk ancaman baharu dalam perundangan tort. Buat masa ini, Malaysia masih belum mempunyai sebarang persiapan perundangan untuk menghadapi ancaman AI. Jika kelemahan ini tidak diatasi, mangsa tort mungkin akan mengalami kesukaran pada masa hadapan untuk membuat tuntutan pampasan terhadap pelaku tort.

Kata kunci: kecerdasan buatan, AI, tort, ancaman, personaliti undang-undang

Abstract

Apart from artificial intelligence’s (AI) impressive abilities, it cannot avoid errors in judgment. This article intends to explain the weaknesses of the law of tort in addressing the threats of AI. This article also discusses the development of AI in Malaysia in order to assess Malaysia’s readiness to face the legal threats caused by AI. The research methodology employed for this article is qualitative in nature. The data referred to in this article is based on the law of tort, previous cases decided by the courts, articles in journals, and online resources. The analysis of the available data concludes that AI has brought about new forms of threats in the realm of the law of tort. At this time, Malaysia has yet to have any legal preparation to face threats from AI. If these weaknesses are left unaddressed, tort victims may face difficulties in future to claim damages against the tortfeasor.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, AI, tort, threats, legal personality

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