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SEJARAH KEWUJUDAN GOLONGAN KANAK-KANAK JALANAN DAN DEFINISI DALAM KONTEKS PERUNDANGAN MALAYSIA

(Historical Existence and the Definition of Street Children in theContexts of Malaysian Law)

*Nurul Hidayat Ab Rahman

nhidayat@ukm.edu.my

Salawati Mat Basir

salawati@ukm.edu.my

Fakulti Undang-Undang,

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

Terbit dalam talian (published online): 3 Januari 2020

Sila rujuk: Nurul Hidayat Ab Rahman dan Salawati Mat Basir. (2020). Sejarah Kewujudan Golongan Kanak-kanak Jalanan dan Definisi dalam Konteks Perundangan Malaysia. Kanun: Jurnal Undang-undang Malaysia, 32(1), 145-164.

Abstrak

Menurut sejarah, kanak-kanak jalanan ialah golongan yang wujud hasildaripada perkembangan teknologi secara pesat, sehingga menyebabkan berlakunya penghijrahan masyarakat dari kawasan pedalaman ke bandar besar. Namun demikian, atas beberapa faktor yang menggagalkan usaha untuk menaik taraf kehidupan mereka, akhirnya wujud golongan kanak-kanak jalanan. Sehingga kini, isu kanak-kanak jalanan masih menemui jalan buntu. Selain masalah yang dihadapi oleh mereka dari aspek ekonomi, sosial dan persekitaran, hal utama yang mengusutkan lagi gejala ini ialah definisi sebenar istilah “kanak-kanak jalanan”. Hal ini kerana, kanak-kanak jalanan terdiri daripada pelbagai kategori kumpulan kanakkanak yang berada di lorong-lorong jalan. Ketiadaan definisi muktamad bukan sahaja akan membantutkan pengumpulan data dan informasi lanjut kumpulan ini, malah turut menyukarkan saluran bantuan kepada mereka. Makalah ini membincangkan sejarah kewujudan golongan tersebut, definisi oleh beberapa penulis lain, gelaran bagi kanak-kanak jalanan di Malaysia, huraian daripada Akta Kanak-Kanak 2001 (Akta 611) serta masalah yang timbul daripadanya.

Kata kunci: Kanak-kanak jalanan, definisi, Akta Kanak-Kanak 2001 (Akta 611), hak asasi, diskriminasi

Abstract

Historically, street children have been the result of rapid technological advances, leading to the migration of people from rural areas to big cities. However, due to several factors that thwart their efforts to improve their lives, street children come into being. To date, the issue of street children has still met a dead end. In addition to the problems they face in terms of economic, social and environmental aspects, the main drawback is the absence of a clear definition of ‘street children’ as it concerns various categories of children on the streets. The absence of a definitive definition not only hinders data collection and further information concerning this group but makes it challenging to help them. This paper discusses the history of street children, definitions by several authors, terms used to refer to ‘street children’ in Malaysia, an explanation of the Childrens’ Act 2001 (Act 611) and issues that arise therefrom.

Keywords: Street children, definition, Child Act 2001 (Act 611), human rights, discrimination

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