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KEBEBASAN AKADEMIK:

MEMPERKASA SISTEM PENDIDIKAN DI MALAYSIA

(Academic Freedom: Strengthening the Educational System in Malaysia)

*Hasbollah Mat Saad

hasbollah.saad@mmu.edu.my

Fakulti Undang-undang,

Universiti Multimedia, Melaka

Terbit dalam talian (published online): 3 Januari 2020

Sila rujuk: Hasbollah Mat Saad. (2020). Kebebasan Akademik: Memperkasa Sistem Pendidikan di Malaysia. Kanun: Jurnal Undang-undang Malaysia, 32(1), 119-144.

Abstrak

Kebebasan akademik merupakan antara inti pati dalam pembentukan sesebuah institusi pendidikan tinggi yang bermatlamatkan pendidikan yang holistik dan bersepadu untuk melahirkan modal insan yang berpengetahuan. Perkara 10 Perlembagaan Persekutuan dengan jelas menetapkan hak dan kebebasan kepada semua warganegara untuk menyuarakan pendapat mereka secara bebas. Walau bagaimanapun terdapat banyak peruntukan undang-undang lain yang memberikan kesan terhadap kebebasan akademik di Malaysia antaranya termasuklah; Kanun Keseksaan (Akta 574), Akta Fitnah 1957, Akta Hasutan 1948, Akta Mesin Cetak dan Penerbitan 1984, Akta Rahsia Rasmi 1972, Akta Komunikasi dan Multimedia 1998, Akta Universiti dan Kolej Universiti 1971, dan Perlembagaan bagi setiap institusi pendidikan di Malaysia. Masyarakat yang berteraskan ilmu hendaklah diberikan hak dan kebebasan untuk menyuarakan apa-apa pendapat, idea, penemuan atau pembaharuan yang kemudiannya disalurkan kepada pihak yang berkaitan bagi membangunkan negara. Keterbatasan ruang yang diberikan terhadap hak dan kebebasan ini mengakibatkan “kemandulan” pemikiran masyarakat yang akhirnya menyumbang ke arah penguncupan dari segi keilmuan. Oleh itu, artikel ini bertujuan untuk menzahirkan konsep, dan skop yang difikirkan sesuai bagi membantu masyarakat memahami hakikat sebenar keadaan ini dan menjurus kepada pembentukan masyarakat berpengetahuan seperti matlamat yang digariskan dalam sistem pendidikan di Malaysia.

Kata kunci: Kebebasan akademik, peranan, memperkasa sistem pendidikan, masyarakat berpengetahuan.

Abstract

Academic freedom is one of the important elements of the establishment of higher education institutions for promoting a holistic and integrated education in order to produce knowledgeable human capital. Article 10 of the Federal Constitution clearly states that it all citizens have the right and freedom to express their views freely. From the said provisions of the Federal Constitution, there are many other legal provisions that have an impact on academic freedom in Malaysia. These include the Penal Code (Act 574), the Defamation Act 1957, the Sedition Act 1948, the Printing Presses and Publications Act 1984, the Official Secrets Act 1972, the Communications and Multimedia Act 1998, the University and University Colleges Act 1971, the constitution of every educational institution in Malaysia and others. A knowledge-based society should be given the right and freedom to express any ideas, findings or reforms that can be channeled to the relevant parties for the development of the country. However, limiting the space for these rights and freedoms will result in an “infertile” climate of thinking within local society, which will eventually lead to a reduction in intellectualism. Therefore, this article is designed to provide the concepts, scope and other factors that are considered appropriate to help the public understand the reality of the situation and how it can lead to the formation of a knowledge society as outlined in the Malaysian education system.

Keywords: Academic freedom, role, strengthening of education system, knowledge society

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