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TANAH ADAT MASYARAKAT ORANG ASLI DI NEGERI SEMBILAN:

KAJIAN KES DI PORT DICKSON

(Customary Land of the Orang Asli Communities in NegeriSembilan:

Case studies in Langkap, Kuala Pilah; Parit Gong,Jelebu and Bukit Kepong, Port Dickson)

*Izawati Wook

izawati@usim.edu.my

Arif Fahmi Md Yusof

fahmi@usim.edu.my

Kamilahwati Mohd

su.fsu@usim.edu.my

Intan Nadia Ghulam Khan

intan@usim.edu.my

Fareed Mohd Hassan

fareed@usim.edu.my

Abd Hakim Mohad

abdhakim@usim.edu.my

Dina Imam Supaat

dinasupaat@yahoo.com

Adzidah Yaakob

adzidah@usim.edu.my

Fakulti Syariah dan Undang-undang,

Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia.

Terbit dalam talian (published online): 3 Januari 2020

Sila rujuk: Izawati Wook, Arif Fahmi Md Yusof, Kamilahwati Mohd,Intan Nadia Ghulam Khan, Fareed Mohd Hassan, Abd Hakim Mohad,Dina Imam Supaat dan Adzidah Yaakob. (2020). Tanah Adat Masyarakat orang Asli di Negeri Sembilan: Kajian kes di Langkap, Kuala Pilah; Parit
Gong, Jelebu and Bukit Kepong, Port Dickson. Kanun: Jurnal Undang-undang Malaysia, 32(1), 93-118.

Abstrak

Hak terhadap pegangan tanah yang selamat diterima sebagai salah satu petunjuk pembangunan lestari seperti yang dinyatakan dalam Agenda 2030 Matlamat Pembangunan Lestari. Bagi masyarakat minoriti orang asal khususnya, hak pegangan tanah yang selamat merupakan perkara asas bagi mengekalkan jati diri dan kehidupan mereka. Artikel ini menghuraikan hasil kajian kes tanah adat masyarakat orang asli di Negeri Sembilan, iaitu di Langkap, Kuala Pilah, Parit Gong di Jelebu dan Bukit Kepong di Port Dickson. Kajian ini berasaskan kerangka prinsip common law sebagai asas pengiktirafan tanah adat masyarakat asal di negara ini. Kajian kes menunjukkan bahawa masyarakat orang asli Temuan melihat tanah dan kawasan yang mereka tinggal, bertani dan sebagainya sebagai satu “kawasan” ataupun “wilayah” yang dimiliki oleh komuniti mereka yang dipelihara berasaskan adat perpatih bagi kesejahteraan komuniti pada masa ini serta generasi yang akan datang. Di dalam wilayah tersebut, terdapat kawasan di sekitar penempatan dan pertanian yang penting sebagai kawasan rayau yang berfungsi sebagai zon penyangga (buffer zone) kepada ahli yang memerlukan. Masyarakat orang asli mempunyai “sistem perundangan” mereka sendiri yang diatur oleh adat dan sistem komuniti yang tersusun dengan konsep wilayah tersendiri. Hasil kajian ini penting bagi memberikan pengetahuan dan kefahaman masyarakat di negara ini terhadap komuniti orang asli serta amalan mereka yang mungkin mampu membuka jalan ke arah perubahan dasar dan undang-undang yang memberikan perlindungan yang lebih baik kepada mereka selaras dengan matlamat pembangunan lestari.

Kata kunci: Orang asli, Temuan, tanah adat, adat perpatih, matlamat pembangunan lestari (SDGs)

Abstract

Securing tenure rights to land is recognized as an indicator to achieve the sustainable development goals as outlined in Agenda 2030. Land is an essential foundation for vulnerable indigenous peoples to maintain their livelihood and identity. By providing a case study of the Orang Asli Temuan in Negeri Sembilan on the customs, practices, use and traditions relating to land, drawn on the framework of common law jurisprudence on indigenous peoples’ customary land, this paper illustrates the significance of land and its security for the communities. In particular, by using case study, this paper investigates the customary land of the Orang Asli in selected villages: Langkap in Kuala Pilah, Parit Gong in Jelebu and Bukit Kepong in Pasir Panjang. It is found that the Temuan Orang Asli regard the land and territory that they live in as belonging to their own community, and its maintenance based on Adat Perpatih is vital for the community and future generations. Within this territory, there are areas surrounding the settlement and agricultural areas that they regard as foraging areas which function as a buffer zone for community members. It is evident that the Orang Asli communities have their own “legal system” based on their customs and community system. The research findings are important to provide knowledge and understanding of the communities and their practices, which may pave the way towards changes in laws and policies to better protect these peoples, consistent with sustainable development goals.

Keywords: Orang asli, Temuan, customary land, adat perpatih, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

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