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BUKTI SAINTIFIK DAN PENERIMAANNYA DI MAHKAMAH SYARIAH:

ANALISIS PERUNDANGAN BAGI UNDANG-UNDANG KETERANGAN MAHAKMAH SYARIAH

(Scientific Evidence and Its Admissibility in Syariah Court:Legal Analysis of Syariah Court Evidence Law)

*Muhammad Hazim Ahmad

hazimahmad@usim.edu.my

Fakulti Syariah dan Undang-undang, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia.

Ahmad Syukran Baharuddin

ahmadsyukran@usim.edu.my

Centre of Research for Fiqh Forensics and Judiciary (CFORSJ),

Institut Sains Islam, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia

Mohamad Anwar Zakaria

anwarzakaria8055@gmail.com

Noraishah Nordin

nordinnoraishah@gmail.com

Siti Khadijah Ishak

ejaaa94@gmail.com

Nur Khairina Othaman

nurkhairina94@gmail.com

Fakulti Syariah dan Undang-undang, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia.

Terbit dalam talian (published online): 3 Januari 2020

Sila rujuk: Muhammad Hazim Ahmad, Ahmad Syukran Baharuddin, Mohamad Anwar Zakaria, Noraishah Nordin, Siti Khadijah Ishak dan Nur Khairina Othaman. (2020). Bukti Saintifik dan Penerimaannya di Mahkamah Syariah: Analisis Perundangan bagi Undang-undang Keterangan Mahkamah Syariah. Kanun: Jurnal Undang-undang Malaysia, 32(1), 67-92.

Abstrak

Penggunaan bukti saintifik di mahkamah dapat mensabitkan seseorang dengan sesuatu kes, dan membebaskan orang yang tidak bersalah. Penerimaan bukti saintifik telah diamalkan di mahkamah sivil sejak tahun 1950-an dan diguna pakai secara meluas sehingga hari ini. Sungguhpun demikian, senario berbeza berlaku di mahkamah syariah, bukti saintifik amat jarang digunakan. Pada hakikatnya, undangundang Keterangan Mahkamah Syariah mempunyai peruntukan yang hampir sama dengan Akta Keterangan 1950 berkaitan pembuktian saintifik. Oleh itu, makalah ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji peruntukan dalam undang-undang Keterangan Mahkamah Syariah berkaitan bukti saintifik dan penerimaannya di mahkamah syariah. Kajian kualitatif ini menggunakan kaedah penyelidikan dokumentari dalam pengumpulan data primer dan sekunder. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan kaedah analisis kandungan dengan pendekatan penalaran induktif. Hasil kajian menunjukkan pembuktian saintifik boleh dilakukan oleh ahli forensik. Hukum Syarak menerima dan mengamalkan pembuktian saintifik sebagai salah satu kaedah bagi mensabitkan atau menafikan sesuatu dakwaan. Selain itu, undang-undang keterangan mahkamah syariah juga membuka laluan dan ruang untuk menerima pakai kaedah pembuktian saintifik melalui peruntukan berkaitan keterangan dokumen awam dan pendapat pakar. Terdapat prosedur perundangan yang telah disediakan berkaitan pembuktian saintifik. Hukum Syarak didapati tidak menolak konsep sains forensik malah telah menerimanya sejak ribuan tahun sebelum diperkenalkan melalui nama, terma, dan konsep yang moden. Aplikasi dan sumbangan kajian ini tertumpu pada kajian undang-undang keterangan serta membuat penjelasan berkaitan pendapat pakar yang kurang dikupas dalam kajian terdahulu. Kajian ini turut memberikan kefahaman yang terhadap konsep sains forensik dalam konteks undang-undang keterangan mahkamah syariah.

Kata kunci: Fiqh forensik, sains forensik, Undang-undang Keterangan, mahkamah syariah, bukti saintifik

Abstract

Presenting scientific evidence in court is significant to prove and convict a case, as well as to exonerate innocent people. Acceptance of scientific evidence has been practiced in the civil courts as early as the 1950s and is widely adopted today. However, the scenario is different in the syariah courts, where scientific evidence is rarely used. In fact, Syariah Court Evidence law contains provisions pertaining to scientific evidence that are in pari materia to the Evidence Act 1950. Therefore, this paper aims to examine the provisions in Syariah Court Evidence law regarding scientificevidence and its acceptance in the Syariah Court. This qualitative study uses documentary research methods in collecting primary and secondary e content analysis method by adopting inductive reasoning. The results of the study show that scientific evidence can be presented by forensic experts. The hukum syarak (sharia law) accepts scientific evidence as one of the means of proving or disproving. In addition, the syariah court’s Evidence Law also paves the way for the acceptance of scientific evidence through provisions concerning public documents and expert opinions. There are also legal procedures regarding scientific evidence. In conclusion, sharia law has accepted forensic science for over a thousand years before it was introduced using more scientific and modern names, terms, and concepts. This study focuses on the evidence law, as well as clarifying the opinions of experts that have not yet been examined in previous studies. This study also provides a thorough understanding of the concept of forensic science in the context of the evidence law of the syariah courts.

Keywords: Fiqh forensics, forensic science, evidence law, syariah courts, scientific evidence

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