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MEMPERKASAKAN PERLINDUNGAN MANGSA PEMERDAGANGAN MANUSIA
DI MALAYSIA
(Increasing the Protection of Human Trafficking Victims in Malaysia)

Zuraini Ab. Hamid
zurainihamid@iium.edu.my
Jabatan Amalan Undang-undang,
Kuliyyah Undang-undang Ahmad Ibrahim,
Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia.

Abstrak
Jenayah pemerdagangan manusia merupakan suatu jenayah rentas sempadan yang paling pesat berkembang di seluruh dunia berbanding dengan penyeludupan senjata dan dadah. Fenomena ini mendorong Pertubuhan Bangsa-bangsa Bersatu (PBB) memperkenalkan konsep “3P” melalui Protokol untuk Mencegah, Menyekat dan Menghukum Pemerdagangan Orang terutama Wanita dan Kanak-kanak yang memfokuskan pencegahan jenayah dan perlindungan mangsa pemerdagangan manusia, dan pendakwaan pesalah. Konsep ini menjadi rujukan utama dalam usaha memberikan perlindungan kepada mangsa pemerdagangan manusia, meskipun Malaysia tidak menandatanganinya kerana Malaysia adalah antara negara yang dinilai pencapaiannya dalam Laporan Pemerdagangan Orang (Trafficking in Persons (TIP)) sejak tahun 2001 hingga kini. Dengan menggunakan kaedah kajian doktrin, artikel ini mengenal pasti tanggungjawab antarabangsa yang perlu dipatuhi. Kajian mendapati meskipun Malaysia mengadaptasi beberapa langkah penting untuk mematuhi rangka kerja antarabangsa tersebut, penambahbaikan berdasarkan prinsip “3R”, iaitu penyelamatan, pemulihan dan pengintegrasian semula perlu dilakukan demi memberikan perlindungan yang lebih berkesan kepada mangsa pemerdagangan manusia.
Kata kunci: pemerdagangan manusia, konsep “3P”, hak mangsa, Malaysia, TIP
Abstract
Human trafficking is the fastest-growing transnational crime in the world, ahead of weapon and drug smuggling. This has led to the United Nations (UN) introducing the “3P” paradigm outlined in the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons Especially Women and Children. The “3P” paradigm is the main guideline in protecting human trafficking victims although Malaysia is not bound by this protocol as the country has not signed it. Nevertheless, Malaysia should implement steps to adhere to the protocol as it is one of the countries assessed in the TIP Reports issued since 2001 until now. Using the doctrinal approach, this article clarifies whether the international obligations must be met in Malaysia in order to ensure that victim rights are protected. This paper reveals that Malaysia has adopted a number of vital steps to comply with the international framework. Nonetheless, improvements are necessary to ensure more effective protection for trafficking victims using the “3R” approach—rescue, rehabilitation and reintegration.
Keywords:human trafficking; “3P” paradigm; rights of victims; Malaysia, TIP

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