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Privasi di Tempat Kerja: Tinjauan Sudut Perundangan di Malaysia

(Workplace Privacy: The Legal Point of View in Malaysia)

Zuryati Mohamed Yusoff
Zainal Amin Ayub
Pusat Pengajian Undang-undang,
Kolej Undang-undang, Kerajaan dan Pengajian Antarabangsa,
Universiti Utara Malaysia.


Pertumbuhan pesat teknologi maklumat dan komunikasi (TMK) menggesa pekerja mencari maklumat dan menjana kecekapan dalam pekerjaan. Perubahan ini berlaku akibat peningkatan kecanggihan teknologi pengawasan yang melibatkan kawalan data peribadi yang membolehkan majikan memantau prestasi pekerja, mengekalkan disiplin dan produktiviti pekerja. Antara teknologi pengawasan yang digunakan termasuklah aplikasi sistem penentududukan sejagat (global positioning system), pengawasan video, kad pintar, pengecaman wajah dan biometrik. Pengumpulan data ini juga amat berkait rapat dengan privasi. Tambahan pula, Perlembagaan Persekutuan Malaysia tidak mengiktiraf secara khusus privasi sebagai suatu hak asasi dan Akta Perlindungan Data Peribadi 2010 hanya melindungi data yang berkaitan dengan transaksi komersial sahaja. Oleh itu, artikel ini membincangkan sejauh manakah perlindungan privasi diberikan kepada pekerja di Malaysia menggunakan kaedah kajian doktrin. Kes Kesatuan Eropah dan Amerika Syarikat dirujuk sebagai panduan dan perbandingan dengan keadaan di Malaysia. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan bahawa tiada perlindungan privasi secara khusus diberikan kepada pekerja di Malaysia.

Kata kunci: privasi, privasi tempat kerja, data peribadi, pengawasan, hak pekerja


The rapid growth of information and communication technology has made it possible for everybody to search information and be more efficient in their work. Another shift taking place as a result of the advancement of surveillance technologies involves the control of  personal data. Controlling personal data enables employers to monitor work performance as well as maintaining employee discipline and productivity. The new technology involved includes global positioning systems, video surveillance, smart cards, face recognition and biometrics. The collection of personal data has significant importance with regard to privacy. The Malaysian Federal Constitution does not specifically recognize privacy as a fundamental right, while the Personal Data Protection Act 2010 only protects the handling of personal data in commercial transactions. As such, this article discusses the extent to which protection is available to employees relating to privacy. The doctrinal methodology was employed in conducting this research. Cases from the European Union and the United States of America were used as guides and for comparison with the situation in Malaysia. The findings are that there is no protection of privacy at the workplace provided specifically to protect employees in Malaysia.

Keywords: privacy, workplace privacy, personal data, surveillance, employee rights


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