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TADBIR URUS DAN PENGAWALSELIAAN AR-RAHNU DI MALAYSIA: BIDANG KUASA SIAPAKAH?

(Governance and Ar-Rahnu Supervision in Malaysia: Whose Jurisdiction?)

Asiah Alkharib Shah

mohdasyrafezani@yahoo.com

Nurhafilah Musa

hafilahmusa@gmail.com

Salmy Edawati Yaacob

salmy1001@ukm.edu.my

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

Abstrak

Terdapat pelbagai kategori agensi yang menawarkan perkhidmatan ar-rahnu meliputi institusi kewangan dan bukan kewangan seperti koperasi, syarikat dan syarikat di bawah rangkaian negeri yang ditadbir oleh badan pengawal selia yang berbeza di Malaysia.  Kepelbagaian tadbir urus ar-rahnu ini menyukarkan aktiviti penyelarasan dan penguatkuasaan terhadap aktiviti ar-rahnu. Artikel ini membincangkan agensi yang lebih sesuai dilantik sebagai badan pengawal selia aktiviti ar-rahnu dan melihat fungsi institusi tersebut untuk memperkukuh mekanisme tadbir urus ar-rahnu. Kajian kualitatif dengan pendekatan kajian kes pelbagai, serta pengumpulan data secara analisis dokumen dan temu bual dilaksanakan. Hasil kajian mendapati penentuan bidang kuasa bagi mengawal selia aktiviti ar-rahnu hendaklah merujuk Perlembagaan Persekutuan dan Kementerian Kewangan dikenal pasti sebagai badan pengawal selia yang sesuai menyelaraskan aktiviti ar-rahnu dengan dibantu oleh Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM), Suruhanjaya Syarikat Malaysia (SSM), Suruhanjaya Koperasi Malaysia (SKM), dan Majlis Agama Islam Negeri (MAIN).

Kata kunci: ar-rahnu, bidang kuasa, pengawalseliaan, undang-undang

Abstract

Islamic pawn-broking (Ar-Rahnu) activities in Malaysia began in 1990s. Currently, there are various categories of institutions offering Islamic pawn-broking services, ranging from financial and non-financial institutions such as cooperatives, companies and state-linked companies. Each category of institutions is governed by a different regulatory body. The diversity of governance in ar-rahnu activities creates difficulty in coordination and enforcement of these activities. In order to standardize the governance of Ar-Rahnu, there was a  suggestion to appoint a single regulatory body for Ar-Rahnu. Hence, the purpose of this paper is  to discuss the appropriate agency to be appointed as the regulatory body for Ar-Rahnu activities in Malaysia. In addition, focus will also be given to see how some of the functions of existing institutions can be utilized for the purpose of strengthening the governance mechanisms of Ar-Rahnu in Malaysia. This is a qualitative study with multiple case studies approach, for which data was collected through analysis of documents and interviews to obtain the results. The study finds that determination of power to regulate the activities of Ar-Rahnu in Malaysia should be with reference to the Federal Constitution of Malaysia, and the Ministry of Finance, Malaysia, is the most suitable body to streamsline ar-Rahnu activities, with the aid of Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM), the Companis Commission of  Malaysia (SSM), the Malaysian Co-Operative Societies Commission (SKM), and the State Religious Councils (MAIN).

Keywords: Ar-Rahnu, jurisdictions, supervision, law

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