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Yuhanif Yusof
(yuhanif@uum.edu.my)

Kolej Undang-Undang, Kerajaan dan Pengajian Antarabangsa
Universiti Utara Malaysia

Anisah Che Ngah
(anisah@ukm.my)

Fakulti Undang-Undang
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Latifah Amin
(nilam@ukm.my)

Pusat Pengajian Umum
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Abstrak

Profesion perubatan dipandang tinggi oleh masyarakat Asia berbanding dengan profesion yang lain. Umumnya, pesakit menganggap doktor komited menjalankan tugasnya kerana profesion mereka melibatkan soal hidup dan mati pesakit. Kedudukan doktor sebagai orang yang berkelayakan dan berpengetahuan dalam bidang perubatan mendorong pesakit bergantung pada doktor. Sejarah membuktikan bahawa kepentingan pesakit adalah lebih terjamin apabila mematuhi arahan doktor. Doktor menggunakan pendekatan paternalisme doktor “A doctor knows best”. Oleh itu, doktor membuat semua keputusan termasuklah aspek penyampaian maklumat kepada pesakit. Walau bagaimanapun, kuasa paternalisme goyah apabila autonomi pesakit diiktiraf secara global. Doktor tidak lagi boleh membuat keputusan tanpa persetujuan pesakit. Secara tidak langsung, prinsip etika perubatan universal, yang mementingkan nilai-nilai individu seperti autonomi melalui izin bermaklumat yang dipraktikkan di Barat, diterima pakai di negara ini. Dalam penyelidikan klinikal, autonomi pesakit-subjek adalah muktamad. Hal ini demikian kerana objektif utama penyelidikan klinikal ini dilaksanakan adalah demi kepentingan pesakit pada masa hadapan. Malah, pesakit-subjek turut berdepan dengan risiko termasuklah kematian. Oleh sebab itu, sewajarnya pesakit-subjek didedahkan dengan maklumat yang lengkap.

Kata kunci: penyelidikan klinikal, autonomi, doktor-penyelidik, pesakit-subjek, izin bermaklumat

Rujukan

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