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Pampasan Ganti Rugi Mangsa Kemalangan Jalan Raya: Ke Arah Mengintegrasikan Diat dengan Insurans di Malaysia

(Compensation for Victims of Road Traffic Accidents: Towards an IntegrationofDiatandInsurance in Malaysia)

Siti Zubaidah Ismail

szubaida@um.edu.my

Siti Aisyah Samudin

aisy_awani@siswa.um.edu.my

Jabatan Syariah dan Undang-undang,

Akademi Pengajian Islam, Universiti Malaya.

Abstrak

Kemalangan jalan raya merupakan suatu bencana akibat kecuaian ketika pemanduan. Akibatnya, berlaku kecederaan fizikal dan kerugian harta benda. Akta Pengangkutan Jalan 1987 mewajibkan setiap pemilik kenderaan untuk memiliki polisi insurans bagi melindungi mereka dan pihak terbabit daripada sebarang kerugian. Namun, terdapat juga pihak yang terlibat dalam kemalangan tidak layak mendapat ganti rugi. Timbul persoalan bagaimanakah pengiraan ganti rugi dibuat berdasarkan polisi insurans dan undang-undang yang mengatur kemalangan jalan raya di Malaysia. Artikel ini menganalisis kemungkinan prinsip diat selaku pampasan yang boleh diserap ke dalam kerangka pengenaan ganti rugi berdasarkan kedudukan insurans sebagai ‘aqilah. Kajian dilakukan menggunakan analisis teoretikal. Kajian mendapati syarikat insurans dan polisi insurans kenderaan motor menepati tafsiran ‘aqilah. Dari segi kuantum pampasan, didapati nilai diat lebih tinggi daripada apa-apa yang ditetapkan oleh sistem takaful atau insurans dan Compendium of Personal Injury Awards 2014. Juga dicadangkan agar satu dana permotoran ditubuhkan bagi membolehkan mangsa yang tidak dilindungi oleh insurans mendapat ganti rugi.

Kata kunci: diat, insurans, pampasan, risiko, perlindungan

Abstract

Road traffic accident is a disaster that can happen due to negligence. The accident can cause both physical injuries and property losses. Road Transportation Act 1987 makes it an obligation for all vehicle owners to have policy insurance that covers them from any loss. However, there are still parties involved, apart from the insured, that is not eligible to any compensation. The issue is how the compensation was calculated based on the insurance policy and the law regulating road traffic accident in Malaysia. The article analyses the possibility of integrating the principle of diat into the framework of compensation based on the insurance as ‘aqilah. The research is done based on the theoretical analysis. It is found that insurance company and the motor insurance policy are consistent with the philosophy of ‘aqilah. In terms of quantum of damages, it is found that the value under diat is much higher that those covered both under the insurance/takaful policy and Compendium of Personal Injury Awards 2014. It is also suggested that an automobile fund is set up to assist the unprotected victims.

Keywords: diat, insurance, compensation, damages, risk, protection

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