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Konsep Hak Asasi Manusia bagi Orang Kurang Upaya

di Malaysia: Suatu Analisis

(Basic Human Rights for Persons with Disabilities in Malaysia: An Analysis)

Ikmal Hisham Md. Tah

ikmal@pahang.uitm.edu.my

Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Pahang,

Kampus Raub.

Khairil Azmin Mokhtar

ka_mokhtar@iium.edu.my

Kulliyyah Undang-undang Ahmad Ibrahim,

Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia.

Abstrak

Artikel ini membincangkan konsep hak asasi manusia (HAM) bagi golongan orang kurang upaya (OKU) yang sudah mula mendapat pengiktirafan pada peringkat antarabangsa apabila Konvensyen PBB Hak Orang Kurang Upaya dan Protokol Pilihan diwujudkan pada tahun 2006. Di Malaysia, ketiadaan peruntukan penalti dalam Akta OKU 2008 menghalang konsep hak asasi manusia dilaksanakan dengan wajar. Selain itu, golongan OKU masih lagi berhadapan dengan persepsi negatif dan diskriminasi masyarakat, sekali gus dinafikan layanan sama rata disebabkan oleh ketidakupayaan mereka. Model sosial ketidakupayaan menggunakan pendekatan hak asasi manusia dilihat lebih sesuai untuk menganalisis keperluan dan hak asasi OKU sejagat bagi menggantikan model perubatan. Tiga prinsip utama pendekatan hak asasi manusia, iaitu maruah, kesamaan dan inklusif penting dilaksanakan kerana mampu mengurangkan persepsi negatif dan diskriminasi masyarakat terhadap golongan OKU. Ketiga-tiga prinsip ini juga membantu pihak kerajaan, terutamanya penggubal undang-undang dan polisi, serta pihak berkaitan melindungi dan mempertahankan hak asasi manusia bagi golongan OKU.

Kata kunci: hak asasi manusia, orang kurang upaya, undang-undang antarabangsa, undang-undang domestik, maruah, kesaksamaan dan inklusif.

Abstract

This article discusses the concept of human rights for persons with disabilities (PWD) who have received international recognition when the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and Option Protocols was enacted in 2006. In Malaysia, the absence of penalty provisions in the Persons with Disabilities Act 2008 prevents reasonable implementation of human rights. Also, PWD face negative perceptions and discrimination from society due to their disabilities. The social model of disabilities using a human rights approach is seen to be more appropriate to analyze the needs and rights of PWDcompared to medical models. The three key principles of human rights—dignity, equality and inclusivity—are important because they may reduce the negative perceptions and discrimination of society towards the disabled, as well as protect their human rights. These three principles may assist the government, especially lawmakers and policymakers, together with other relevant stakeholders in protecting and defending human rights for the disabled.

Keywords: human rights, persons with disabilities, international law, domestic law, dignity, equality, inclusive.

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