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Prinsip Hak Asasi Manusia menurut Perspektif Undang-Undang Antarabangsa dan Hukum Syarak:

Suatu Perbandingan

(Human Rights Principles According to International Law and Syari’ah Perspectives: A Comparison)

Mohd. Hisham Mohd. Kamal

mkmhisham@iiu.edu.my

Kulliyah Undang-undang Ahmad Ibrahim,

Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia.

Abstrak

Makalah ini menggunakan pendekatan perbandingan untuk menganalisis empat hak sivil dan politik, iaitu kebebasan diri, kebebasan beragama, kesamarataan gender dan kebebasan bersuara dari perspektif undang-undang antarabangsa dan hukum syarak. Analisis mendapati undang-undang negara yang bersifat sekular sangat jelas berbeza daripada hukum yang berasaskan agama. Hukum syarak mengandungi batasan dan larangan (untuk tidak berbuat dosa) yang tidak diiktiraf dalam undang-undang hak asasi manusia antarabangsa. Hasil kajian mendapati hanya hak kebebasan diri mempunyai persamaan antara kedua-dua undang-undang ini.

Kata kunci: hak asasi manusia, undang-undang antarabangsa, hukum syarak, kebebasan diri, kebebasan beragama, kesamarataan gender, kebebasan bersuara

Abstract

This article uses the comparative approach in analyzing four civil and political rights namely personal liberty, freedom of religion, gender equality and freedom of speech from international law and syariah perspectives. The analysis finds that the secular law of nations clearly differs from the religious law. Syariah contains restrictions and prohibitions (from committing sins) which are not recognized by the international human rights law.  Nevertheless there are similarities between the two laws with regard to the aspect of personal liberty.

Keywords: human rights, international law, syariah, personal liberty, freedom of religion, gender equality, freedom of expression

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