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Sejarah Perkembangan Undang-Undang Keselamatan Pekerjaan di Amerika Syarikat dan United Kingdom,  Serta Pengaruhnya terhadap Malaysia

(The History of Occupational Safety Law in the United States of America  and the United Kingdom, and their Influence on Malaysia)

Che Thalbi Md. Ismail

chet1048@uum.edu.my

Pusat Pengajian Undang-undang,

Kolej Undang-undang, Kerajaan dan Pengajian Antarabangsa,

Universiti Utara Malaysia,

Sintok 06010, Kedah, Malaysia.

Abstrak

Makalah ini dimulai dengan perbincangan tentang perkembangan sejarah undang-undang keselamatan pekerjaan di United Kingdom dan Amerika Syarikat. Seterusnya, perbincangan dilanjutkan dengan melihat pengaruh negara tersebut terhadap perkembangan undang-undang di Malaysia. Di Malaysia, undang-undang keselamatan pekerjaan bermula dengan pembentukan Akta Kilang dan Jentera 1967 dan peraturan di bawahnya. Pembentukan undang-undang ini  dianggap satu permulaan yang baik dalam perkembangan penggubalan undang-undang keselamatan pekerjaan. Kemudian, Akta Keselamatan dan Kesihatan Pekerjaan 1994 pula dibentuk dan menjadi pelengkap kepada peraturan umum kepada hampir semua jenis perusahaan, serta  meletakkan liabiliti menjaga keselamatan dan kesihatan kepada banyak pihak, selain majikan. Kaedah analisis sejarah digunakan untuk melihat sama ada undang-undang di kedua-dua negara Barat ini diciplak sepenuhnya di Malaysia atau telah melalui proses pengubahsuaian untuk disesuaikan dengan keadaan tempatan. Sebagai tambahan, analisis terhadap perkembangan Common Law juga diselitkan kerana pemakaian undang-undang ini dibenarkan di Malaysia di bawah Akta Undang-undang Sivil 1956.

Kata kunci: sejarah undang-undang, keselamatan pekerjaan

Abstract

This article begins the discussion by explaining the historical development of the occupational safety law of the United Kingdom and the United States of America. Further, the discussion is widened to examine the influence of the said countries on the development of Malaysian law. In Malaysia, the development of occupational safety law started with the introduction of the Factory and Machinery Act 1967 and its regulations. Such legislation is considered to have been a good start in the development of occupational safety law. Next, the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 was drafted and this complemented the laws by governing almost all industries and also imposing the liability of ensuring workers’ safety and health not only on employers, but also various other parties. The historical analysis method is adopted here to examine whether the law in these western countries was duplicated in their entirety in Malaysia or whether it has gone through some modification process to suit the local application. It is also worthy to note that analysis of the development of the Common Law principles is also included since its application in Malaysia was approved via the Civil Law Act 1956.

Keywords: legal history, occupational safety

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