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Umur Minimum Tanggungjawab Jenayah Kanak-Kanak: Menilai Undang-Undang Malaysia dari Perspektif Undang-undang Antarabangsa

(Minimum Age for Criminal Responsibility: Examining Malaysian Law  from the Perspective of International Law)

Aminuddin Mustaffa

aminuddinm@unisza.edu.my

Fakulti Undang-undang, Perakaunan dan Hubungan Antarabangsa,

Univesiti Sultan Zainal Abidin,

Kampus Gong Badak,

21300 Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia.

Abstrak

Umur minimum tanggungjawab jenayah merujuk tahap usia kanak-kanak boleh secara munasabah dan adil dikenakan liabiliti atas tindakan jenayah yang mereka lakukan. Sehingga sekarang, penentuan  umur minimum tanggungjawab jenayah kanak-kanak masih lagi kekal sebagai isu kontroversi dalam kalangan sistem keadilan juvenil di seluruh dunia. Praktis dalam sistem keadilan jenayah juvenil yang sedia ada menunjukkan tiada keseragaman dalam memilih dan menetapkan umur minimum tanggungjawab jenayah. Rujukan instrumen antarabangsa menunjukkan terdapat prinsip dan garis panduan yang ditetapkan dalam penentuan umur minimum tanggungjawab jenayah kanak-kanak. Oleh itu, makalah akan cuba meneliti aspek berkaitan dengan prinsip dan panduan yang digariskan oleh  instrumen antarabangsa dalam perkara ini. Seterusnya, makalah ini juga akan menganalisis sejauh manakah rangka kerja undang-undang Malaysia mematuhi piawaian yang ditetapkan oleh undang-undang antarabangsa, sekali gus cuba mengenal pasti ruang penambahbaikan undang-undang dan polisi yang sedia ada.

Kata kunci: kanak-kanak, jenayah, tanggungjawab, undang-undang antarabangsa, umur minimum

Abstract

The minimum age for criminal responsibility refers to the age at which children can be reasonably and fairly considered liable for their criminal actions. To date, determination of the minimum age of  child criminal responsibility still remains a controversial issue among the justice systems across the world where juveniles are concerned. Current practice in  various  justice systems reveals that there is no  uniformity in  setting the minimum age for child criminal responsibility. Reference to international instruments reveals that there are specific principles and guidelines outlined by these instruments on this matter.Thus, this paper will try to examine  principles and guidelines set by the international instruments on this matter. In addition, this paper also will attempt to analyze comparatively the extent to which the current Malaysian legal framework in this matter complies with the international legal standards, and highlight possible suggestions for the improvement of existing laws and policies.

Keywords: children, criminal responsibility, international laws, minimum age

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