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STATUS HAK MILIK HARTA INTELEK HASIL PENYELIDIKAN YANG DIBIAYAI KERAJAAN DI UNIVERSITI

Ownership of University Intellectual Property Resulting from Government Funded Research

Nasiibah Ramli

ramlinasiibah@gmail.com

Zinatul Ashiqin Zainol

shiqin@ukm.edu.my

Tengku Noor Azirah Tengku Zainudin

tna@ukm.edu.my

Fakulti Undang-undang,

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,

43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

Tel.:+603-89216366

Abstrak

Kebanyakan harta intelek yang dihasilkan di universiti ialah hasil penyelidikan yang dibiayai oleh kerajaan. Hak milik harta intelek bagi hasil penyelidikan yang dibiayai kerajaan pada asalnya terletak kepada kerajaan. Status hak milik ini menyebabkan kesukaran kepada universiti untuk mengeksploitasi harta intelek yang dihasilkan di universiti dan seterusnya menyebabkan longgokan harta intelek hasil penyelidikan yang dibiayai oleh kerajaan yang tidak digunakan dan dieksploitasi. Akta Bayh Dole 1980 yang dilaksanakan oleh Amerika Syarikat telah menjadi contoh kepada kebanyakan negara dengan memberikan hak milik harta intelek hasil penyelidikan yang dibiayai kerajaan kepada universiti sebagai satu insentif kepada universiti untuk meningkatkan penyelidikan dan inovasi di universiti. Makalah ini membincangkan undang-undang hak milik harta intelek di Malaysia dan seterusnya mengkaji peruntukan di bawah Dasar Pengkomersialan Harta Intelek R&D yang dibiayai oleh Kerajaan Malaysia 2009 serta membuat perbandingan dengan peruntukan di bawah Akta Bayh Dole 1980. Pelaksanaan akta berkaitan hak milik harta intelek hasil penyelidikan yang dibiayai kerajaan adalah perlu bagi mewujudkan keseragaman hak milik harta intelek di universiti di Malaysia serta melancarkan pengkomersialan harta intelek hasil inovasi universiti.

Kata kunci: hak milik, harta intelek, hasil penyelidikan dibiayai kerajaan, universiti

Abstract

Most of the intellectual property generated at universities is the result of research funded by the government. Ownership of intellectual property for government-funded research is originally vested in the government as the benefactor. However, the ownership status of intellectual property has been an impediment to the exploitation of the intellectual property generated at universities and thus has resulted in piles of unused intellectual property from research funded by the government. The implementation of the Bayh Dole Act 1980 by the United States has become a model for many countries whereby the act provides that ownership of intellectual property resulting from government-funded research is vested in the universities as an incentive to boost research and innovation in universities. This article discusses intellectual property ownership rules in Malaysia and then analyses ownership provisions under the Policy of Commercialization of  Intellectual Property from R & D funded by the Government of Malaysia in 2009, and makes comparisons with the provisions under the Bayh Dole Act 1980. Implementation of laws relating to ownership of intellectual property from government-funded research is necessary in order to create uniformity for intellectual property rights in Malaysian universities and to ensure smooth process of intellectual property commercialization.

Keywords: ownership, intellectual property, goverment-funded research, university

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