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Isu dalam Penahanan dan Pemulihan Banduan di Malaysia

(Detention and Rehabilitation of Prisoners in Malaysia according to the Perspective of Islamic Law and International Law)

Wan Roslili Abd. Majid

wan_lili06@yahoo.com

Pusat Kajian Syariah, Undang-undang dan Politik

Institut Kefahaman Islam Malaysia

2 Langgak Tungku off Jalan Duta, 50480 Kuala Lumpur.

Najibah Mohd Zain

najibah@iium.edu.my

Kulliyyah Undang-Undang Ahmad Ibrahim,

Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia (IIUM),

Jalan Gombak, 53100 Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA.

Abstrak

Penahanan banduan yang bertujuan membolehkan mereka menjalani proses pemulihan di penjara awam di seluruh negara menimbulkan isu tertentu.  Antaranya termasuklah sama ada hak tertentu yang masih dimiliki mereka sebagaimana diperuntukkan undang-undang yang berkaitan dengan menepati prinsip syarak, khususnya maqasid al-Syari’ah.  Demikian juga sama ada undang-undang tersebut menepati garis panduan yang ditetapkan oleh peraturan atau instrumen antarabangsa.  Kajian ini dilaksanakan di salah sebuah penjara awam dengan menggunakan kaedah temu bual dan pemerhatian.  Kajian tersebut melibatkan 25 orang banduan wanita, lapan orang pegawai penjara, dan penguasa Penjara Wanita Kajang.  Hasil kajian mendapati secara umumnya peruntukan undang-undang yang berkaitan dengan penjara dan penyeliaan penghuninya seperti Akta Penjara dan Peraturan-Peraturan Penjara, mematuhi prinsip maqasid al-syari`ah dan piawaian antarabangsa. Walau bagaimanapun, terdapat beberapa isu sampingan yang perlu diberikan perhatian demi menjamin objektif pemulihan dapat dilaksanakan dengan jayanya. Undang-undang antarabangsa dan amalan baik negara lain, yang tidak bertentangan dengan prinsip syarak dan undang-undang tempatan, perlu dijadikan penanda aras dalam melaksanakan penambahbaikan pada masa akan datang.

Kata kunci: pesalah, pemulihan, penjara, wanita, maqasid

Abstract

The detention of prisoners which aims at providing them opportunities to undergo the process of rehabilitation in public prisons across the country has raised certain issues.  This includes the question of whether their rights provided under the law are in conformity with the high intent of law (maqasid al-shariah). Likewise, the issue of whether the legislation complies with the guidelines prescribed by international regulations or instruments.  Thus, a study was conducted at a public prison through interview and observation.  The research involved 25 of women prisoners, eight prison officers, and a Superintendent of Kajang women’s prison. The study finds that in general, the provisions of law relating to prisons and the supervision of inmates under the Prisons Act and Prison Regulations adhere to the high intent of law and international standards.  Nevertheless, there are minor issues that need to be addressed in order to ensure that the objective of rehabilitation is successfully met. As such, The Malaysian Prisons Department is urged to observe the principles of Islamic law, provisions of international conventions as long as these are in tandem with Islamic principles and local laws, apart from the best practices in other countries including other Muslim countries.  This is to ensure that the prisoners’ welfare and specific needs, particularly those of women prisoners, are fulfilled.  In other words, international law, to a certain extent, and Islamic law should be the benchmarks for possible future improvement.

Keywords: prisoners, rehabilitation, prison, women, maqasid

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