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KESAN RETROSPEKTIF UNDANG-UNDANG  JENAYAH MENURUT PERUNDANGAN ISLAM DAN PERLEMBAGAAN PERSEKUTUAN: SATU ANALISIS PERBANDINGAN

Retrospective Effect in Islamic Criminal Law and the Federal Constitution: A Comparative Analysis

Mohd Lotpi Mohd Yusob

mohdlotpi@unisza.edu.my

Mohd Badrol Awang

badrolawang@unisza.edu.my

Aminuddin Mustaffa

aminuddinm@unisza.edu.my

Fakulti Undang-undang dan Hubungan Antarabangsa,

Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin,

Kampus Gong Badak21300 Kuala Terengganu,

Terengganu Darul Iman, Malaysia.

Abstrak

Makalah ini menganalisis pemakaian retrospektif undang-undang jenayah secara perbandingan antara perundangan Islam dengan Perlembagaan Persekutuan. Perundangan Islam  meletakkan dua prinsip pengecualian kepada pemakaian retrospektif undang-undang jenayah. Pertama, sekiranya sesuatu perlakuan jenayah berbahaya dan berupaya menggugat keamanan awam dan kestabilan negara.  Kedua, sekiranya undang-undang tersebut menyebelahi pelaku jenayah dan ini termasuklah undang-undang yang memperuntukkan hukuman yang lebih ringan atau tidak lagi menganggap perlakuan jenayah itu sebagai suatu jenayah. Sekiranya undang-undang baharu tidak menyebelahi pelaku jenayah seperti memperuntukkan hukuman yang lebih berat, maka hukuman baharu tersebut tidak boleh dikuatkuasakan secara retrospektif. Secara perbandingannya Perkara 7(1) Perlembagaan Persekutuan hanya memperuntukkan dengan jelas dua keadaan undang-undang jenayah tidak boleh dikuatkuasakan ke belakang, yang merangkumi undang-undang yang memperuntukkan kesalahan baharu dan hukuman yang lebih berat.

Kata kunci: kesan retrospektif, perlembagaan persekutuan, kes jenayah, analisis perbandingan

Abstract

This article comparatively analyzes the retrospective application of criminal laws between Islamic law and the Federal Constitution. Islamic law has placed two important exceptions to the retrospective application of  criminal law. Firstly, if the crime is so dangerous and capable of posing a threat to public peace and the stability of the country, and secondly, if the law is in favour of the offender. This includes circumstances where a new law provides for a lighter punishment or decriminalizes the act. If the new law provides for a greater punishment then it cannot be applied retrospectively since it disfavours the offender. On the other hand, Article 7(1) of the Constitution clearly provides for only two circumstances in which criminal laws cannot be enforced with retrospective effect i.e. if the act was not a crime under the existing law at the time it was committed, and if a new law provides for a greater punishment.

Keywords: ex post facto, Federal Constitution, crime cases, comparative analysis

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