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PENYERTAAN DAN KONSULTASI MASYARAKAT DALAM PEMBANGUNAN TENAGA NUKLEAR DI MALAYSIA

Public Involvement and Consultation for the Development of Nuclear Energy in Malaysia

Syahmi@Muhammad Syahmi bin Jaafar

syahmimurni@yahoo.com

Fakulti Undang-Undang,  Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,

43650 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

Tel.: +6030143384233

Abstrak

Sisa Nuklear merupakan isu global yang masih belum menemui penyelesaian terbaik mengenai cara penyimpanan, pengangkutan dan pelupusannya. Perkara ini diburukkan lagi dengan beberapa malapetaka yang berlaku berkaitan dengan nuklear seperti tragedi Three Mile Island di USA, Chernobyl di Russia dan kejadian kebocoran loji nuklear di Fukushima, Jepun telah mengundang kebimbangan mengenai kaedah pengurusan sisa secara mapan dan menjamin keselamatan, dan kesihatan penduduk dan sekitaran kawasan berdekatan dengan loji nuklear atau pun pusat penyimpanan sisa nuklear. Di Malaysia, perancangan dan persiapan awal ke arah penerokaan nuklear dalam penjanaan tenaga telah dijalankan. Isu berkaitan sisa radioaktif di Kilang LYNAS, Kawasan Perindustrian Gebeng, Pahang telah pun mencetuskan keresahan dalam kalangan masyarakat setempat. Tambahan lagi polemik “Not in My Backyard” yang telah menular dalam kalangan penduduk dan seterusnya memberi impak terhadap politik, ekonomi dan sosial. Makalah  ini bertujuan untuk mengenal pasti permasalahan dan isu perundangan yang berkaitan serta memperhalus cadangan penyelesaian kaedah konsultasi terbaik dan komunikasi berkesan dengan masyarakat ke arah penerimaan mereka dan komitmen kerajaan agar dapat dilihat lebih telus dan berkesan dalam setiap mekanisma pengawalan dan penguatkuasaan.

Kata kunci: sisa nuklear, nuklear, radioaktif, pengurusan, perundangan antarabangsa, konsultasi, penyertaan masyarakat, perundangan alam sekitar, perlesenan

Abstract

Nuclear waste is a global issue for which the best solution concerning storage, transportation and disposal has yet to be found. This matter is further complicated by catastrophes such as those that have occurred at Three Mile Island in the USA, Chernobyl in Russia and the nuclear plant meltdown incident at Fukushima, Japan. These have sparked concerns about the sustainable methods of nuclear waste management in ensuring the safety and health of the population, and the impact on the environment in the vicinity of nuclear plants or nuclear waste storage centers. In Malaysia, efforts towards nuclear power generation are in the beginning stages. Radioactive waste at the Lynas, Gebeng Industrial Estate in Pahang has sparked issues among the locals. This has brought about an outcry of “Not in My Backyard”, which in turn has a political, economic and social impact. This paper aims at exploring the nature of the problems and the legal issues involved, as well as attempting to recommend possible solutions for public engagement and continuous communication with the community. The final aim is public acceptance and the commitment of the government to be more transparent and effective when it comes to control and enforcement.

Keywords: nuclear waste, nuclear, radioactive, management, international law, consultation, public participation, environmental law, licencing

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