The Japanese occupation of Singapore in World War II occurred between 1942 and 1945 after the fall of Singapore on 15 February 1942. SOURCE 1. " The Battle of Singapore, the Massacre of Chinese and Understanding of the Issue in Postwar Japan. The Kempeitai (the Japanese military police), which was the dominant occupation unit in Singapore, committed numerous atrocities towards the common people. Battle of Singapore written by Ho, Stephanie. We have also suggested a few thinking questions to help students engage with the sources in a more critical manner. Shortly after British forces surrendered in Singapore on 15 February 1942, the Japanese military began operation Kakyou Shukusei [a] or Dai Kenshou [b], known in the Chinese community of Singapore as the Sook Ching ("Purge") [c], in which many … Military forces of the Empire of Japan occupied Singapore after defeating the combined Australian, British, Indian and Malayan garrison in the Battle of Singapore.The occupation was to become a major turning point in the history of several … Call no. It invaded and occupied Manchuria in 1931. 5425 TSU.3. The Sook Ching Massacre claimed the lives of between 25,000 and 55,0… War Memory in Singapore and Malaya: Japanese Sources (Yale-NUS College). Tsuji, M. (1988). [1]Upon convening at the Ford Motor Factory on the evening of 15 February with three other military officers, Percival tried to negotiate with Yamashita on some of the conditions for the surrender of Singapore. Call no. To remove Western influence the Japanese promoted the Japanese spirit (Nippon Seishin). They used them by forced labour to repair the damaged docks in Singapore. By the time the war ended, the " banana money " had no value and became useless. An island city and the capital of the Straits Settlement of the Malay Peninsula, Singapore had been a British colony since the 19th century. Another change which took place during the Japanese Occupation was the currency of our money. In 1937, Japan began to invade the rest of China. BEFORE THE JAPANESE OCCUPATION. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. [2] Percival wished to delay the ceasefire so as to ensure that all of his men received their orders on time. A soldier must hang: The biography of an oriental general (p. 81). Scapegoat: General Percival of Singapore (pp. Begun in 1981 as the then Oral History Department's third project, these interviews record the experiences during the Japanese occupation of Singapore from 1942 to 1945. The Japanese language was taught in many ways. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. The author would also like to thank the Yale-NUS Library, NUS Chinese-Japanese Library, Ritsumeikan University's Kyoto Museum for World Peace and the Kyoto Consortium for Japanese Studies (KCJS) for their invaluable support throughout the research period. 218–219). Drawing on surviving wartime administrative papers, oral sources, intelligence reports and post-war accounts by Japanese officers, this book presents a picture of life in occupied Malaya and Singapore. Humiliation was hourly inflicted on the caucasian women internees who were forced to bow in fear to their Japanese guards whenever they met. During the Japanese Occupation, however, vernacular schools were the first to re-open which started with the primary schools in 1942. Singapore 1941–1942: The Japanese version of the Malayan campaign of World War II (pp. This guide is not intended to be comprehensive, but aims to be a resource to students and scholars interested in this historical period. WW2 survivor, Mr Tan Hwee Hock, 87, recalls the life under the Japanese Occupation. Retrieved December 19, 2013, from Singapore Infopedia; National Library Board. The source tells about how the prisoners-of-war during the Japanese Occupation. This subject guide covers Japanese-medium primary sources relevant to the Japanese Occupation of Singapore and Malaya. The victims were mostly Singaporean Chinese and ranged from trade unionists, petty businessmen, activists and civil … This was made possible because the Gardens and Japanese staff shared a common goal and belief in preserving the cultural and scientific heritage of Singapore. Potter, J. D. (1963). 180–183). Retrieved December 19, 2013, from Singapore Infopedia.2. A chronicler of the Japanese Occupation, Lee Geok Boi (above) has launched the second edition of her 1992 book, Syonan, to commemorate the 75th anniversary of the fall of Singapore. Potter, 1963, p. 91.6. The occupation started after the army of Japan defeated garrison troops from Australia, British Malaya, Britain, and India.This was at the Battle of Singapore. It is called banana notes as there is a picture of a banana tree at every single piece of notes. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic. Call no. 266–267). The Japanese Occupation of Singapore is a time from 1942-1945 (during World War II) where the Japanese occupied Singapore.Japan attacked because Singapore was an important naval base for controlling other areas. In Singapore during the Japanese occupation, food and other commodities were in very short supply and strictly rationed. They introduced the system of "Sook Ching", meaning "purging through purification" in Chinese, to get rid of those, especially so ethnic Chinese, deemed to be hostile to the Empire of Japan(anti-Japanese elements in the local population). National Library Board. Interview with Lady Percy McNeice nee Loke Yuen Peng. The Japanese secret police rounded up suspects into prisons in Outram and Stamford Road. There were several possible reasons why the Japanese military carried out the operation. The purge took place from 18 February to 4 March 1942 at various places … These sources are grouped according to different categories to give a sense of how people’s lives were affected by the Japanese Occupation in Singapore. To the best of the author's knowledge, not all of the primary sources listed here are available online or at NUS Libraries. Japanese Occupation of Singapore About Project. Last but not least, I would also like to thank Professor Shimazu Naoko of Yale-NUS College and Professor Emeritus Akashi Yoji of Nanzan University for their advice and guidance. On 15 February 1942, which was the first day of the Lunar New Year, Lieutenant General Arthur E. Percival, who was then the General Officer Commanding (Malaya), signed the surrender documents before Lieutenant General Tomoyuki Yamashita, Commander of the Japanese 25th Army that invaded Malaya on 8 December 1941. Rice, salt, cooking oil and cloth were some of the essential items that had to be rationed. This guide aims to increase awareness of and accessibility to these sources (as well as relevant secondary literature) to students, scholars and members of the public interested in the Japanese Occupation and the impact it has had on Singaporean national identity. [5] He was particularly worried that the British might discover the truth about the actual situation of his troops, in particular their numerical inferiority compared to the British and their shortage of supplies and ammunition. By 1860, the Indians have became the second largest ethnic group. The meeting took place at the Ford Motor Factory, which had been made Yamashita’s headquarters, located in Upper Bukit Timah Road. They will get food if they work. You might be able to do this in the normal shops. Japanese military forces occupied it after defeating the combined British, Indian, Australian, and Malayan garrison in the Battle of Singapore. This means that people would be willing to pay high prices to get more than their ration. Kinvig, C. (1996). (M. E. Lake, Trans.). It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. This subject guide covers Japanese-medium primary sources relevant to the Japanese Occupation of Singapore and Malaya. They worked at docks and clear sewers damaged in the attack on Singapore. In general, living conditions in Singapore during the Japanese Occupation was grim due to the scarcity of many basic necessities. The Malays were the second largest ethnic group in Singapore until the 1860s and they worked as fishermen, craftsmen, or as wage earners while continued to live mostly in kampungs or traditional Malay villages. The voices, with the people looking back at Ojiichan, allude to his own connection to the Japanese occupation. The occupation of Singapore by the Japanese was like a long nightmare that lasted for three and a half years. London: Frank Cass. [6] Hence, Yamashita threatened to carry on with the attack planned for that night if Percival did not acquiesce to his demands. A disadvantage about these notes is that these notes are unlimited. The Japanese Occupation of Malaya and Singapore, 1941-45. The occupation … First, the Japanese military were suspicious of the Chinese in Singapore because of the long-standing tensions between Japan and China, and their own experiences fighting the Chinese in China since 1937.2. : RSING 940.5425 KIN.4. (2001). Here are more articles you can read on World War 2 and the Japanese Occupation: The Syonan Gallery, Empire Ball, and the Singaporean identity On the road to Syonan-to: How Singapore got swept into WW2 the impact of the japanese occupation on the locals in singapore during wwii Picture (top): This money was used during the Japanese Occupation. Life in Singapore during Japanese Occupation (15 February 1942 to 12 September 1945) Japanese have done a lot to influence the minds of the people in Singapore so that the people would be loyal to Japan. London: Muller. The contributors to this volume participated in a Forum that spent four years locating surviving materials relating to the Occupation … : RSING 940.5425 ALL. The Japanese Occupation of Singapore Oral History Collection become an has indispensable source of information; powerfully filling the huge gap caused by the deliberate destruction of written records. During this period known as the Japanese Occupation, the people suffered and lived in constant fear of the Japanese - the price that a country has to pay when it is occupied by another country. One month later, in March 1942, the Japanese government adopted an educational policy as part of the “Principles for the Gunsei Disposition of the Occupied Area”. (2013, July 19). AFTER the Japanese capture of Singapore in February 1942, thousands were summarily executed in a purge called the Sook Ching massacre. In Syonan, they focused on teaching of the Japanese language and cultures. In July 1941, when Japanese troops occupied French Indochina, the Japanese telegraphed their intentions to transfer Singapore from the British to its own burgeoning empire. The information in this article is valid as at 2014 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. Today (Feb 15) is the 75th anniversary of the fall of Singapore. 20 Malay schools re-opened on 12 April and four days later, 10 Indian schools started class. Many of them were born in Faced with no other choice, Percival signed the surrender documents, thereby sealing the fate of Singapore and subjecting the island to three-and-a-half years of Japanese occupation.[7]References1. Singapore, 1941–1942 (pp. Interview with Arthur Alexander Thompson. Singapore: Oxford University Press. After nearly a month’s reparation work on house and grounds during the Japanese Occupation, the Gardens managed to collect itself and regain its calm centre of research activity. He also wished to keep 1,000 men armed as he was afraid that the Japanese would retaliate against the local population. Some remain unpublished and undigitized or were privately printed and circulated, as is the case with many memoir collections edited by (and for) Japanese veterans' associations. : RSING 940. However, the perspectives granted by Japanese-language sources remain largely absent from the national-historical narrative in the Singaporean public sphere. Singapore falls to the Japanese 15 th Feb 1942 Japanese Occupation, 1942 to 1945: Sime Road Camp, Syonan-To. Economically• The Japanese Occupation caused thedisruption of Singapore’s entrepot trade.This caused a shortage of food.• The other resources are controlled to theother parts of the world for the support forthe Japanese war effort• The Japanese present Food Rationing tohelp solve the problems of the shortage offood.• Education in Singapore During Japanese Occupation. If you paid the shopkeeper enough money, he would be able to find what you wanted. To date, significant English-language scholarship regarding the Japanese Occupation utilizing non-Japanese sources has been carried out, in addition to Japanese-language scholarship relating to Japan's participation in the Second World War. The currency changed drastically from Singapore Dollars to Japanese ' banana notes '. Information on the Japanese Occupation of Malaya and Singapore is sparse, and Japanese-language materials are particularly difficult to find because the Japanese military systematically destroyed war-related documents when the war ended. This subject guide was built with the support of a Yale-NUS College Centre for International and Professional Experience (CIPE) Summer Independent Research Program Grant. London: Brassey's UK. Potter, 1963, p. 92.7. Syonan (昭南) officially Syonan-to (昭南島) was the name for Singapore when it was occupied and ruled by the Empire of Japan, following the fall and surrender of British military forces on 15 February 1942 during World War II. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. lt is a comprehensive collection of experiences from a broad The British surrender team of 1942 written by Cornelius-Takahama, Vernon. The Sook Ching was a systematic purge of perceived hostile elements among the Chinese in Singapore and Chinese Malayans by the Japanese military during the Japanese occupation of Singapore and Malaya, after the British colony surrendered on 15 February 1942 following the Battle of Singapore. : RCLOS 940.541352 POT.5. Hayashi Hirofumi . This guide is not intended to be comprehensive, but aims to be a resource to students and scholars interested in this historical period. Singapore News -The National Library's NewspaperSG portal has been given a "historical" boost.. Read more at straitstimes.com. Call no. Humiliation was hourly inflicted on the caucasian women internees who were forced to bow in fear to their Japanese guards whenever they met. Kinvig, 1996, p. 219; Allen, L. (1993). Look out for Volume 1, which traces Japan’s rise to power in the 1930s, defence of Singapore during the Malayan Campaign, resistance efforts by the locals before and during the Occupation to recover Singapore, as well as the subsequent surrender of Japan and the aftermath of war. At the same time, there were also people who did think Singapore was their permanent home. Over in Asia, Japan became increasingly aggressive in the 1930. The Japanese Occupation from February 1942 to September 1945 was one of the hardest times in Singapore history. The Japanese occupation of Singapore took place from 1942 to 1945 after the British surrendered in February 1942. Japanese Occupation, 1942 to 1945: Sime Road Camp, Syonan-To. 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