According to a 1987 estimate, beef accounted for about 51% of all meat consumption, followed by mutton and lamb (19%), poultry (15%), and goat (14%). The program later facilitated the establishment of similar internationally supported and financed projects at Ada'a Chukala (just south of Addis Ababa), Welamo, and Humera. [15], Cotton is grown throughout Ethiopia below elevations of about 1,400 meters. [5] Barley is grown mostly between 2,000 and 3,500 meters. [5], Livestock production plays an important role in Ethiopia's economy. Agric~lture isthe mainstay of the Ethiopian economy. However, these cattle do relatively well under the traditional production system. The original IAR research centers at Holetta, Nazreth, Jima, Bako, Melka Werer, Ambo, Kulumsa and Pawe. THE POLITICS OF LAND TENURE IN ETHIOPIAN HISTORY: Experience From the South Paper Prepared for XI World Congress of Rural Sociology, Trondheim, Norway, July 25-30, 2004 By:Hussein Jemma, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Research Fellow, Centre for International Environment and Development Studies, Agricultural University of Norway P.O.Box 5003 N-1432 Ås, Norway … Resultantly there has been significant uptake of resistant wheat varieties among Ethiopian farmers since 2014. "Roles of extension and ethno-religious networks in acceptance of resource-conserving agriculture among Ethiopian farmers." Before the revolution, large-scale commercial cotton plantations were developed in the Awash Valley and the Humera areas. Between 1976 and 1985, the government constructed 600,000 kilometers of agricultural embankments on cultivated land and 470,000 kilometers of hillside terraces, and it closed 80,000 hectares of steep slopes for regeneration. Although historical, anthropological, and linguistic studies exist for this region, the gaps in our knowledge are great. There was much debate as to whether or not these reforms were genuine and how effectively they could be implemented. Vavilov was also of the opinion of the importance of Ethiopia as ‘a zone of agricultural origin.’ coffee, grain sorghum, and castor bean-originated from Ethiopia in addition to these cereals, they produce different types of fruits and coffee which are not seasonal. In addition, the rugged topography of the highlands, the brief but extremely heavy rainfalls that characterize many areas, and centuries-old farming practices that do not include conservation measures have accelerated soil erosion in much of Ethiopia's highland areas. Agriculture and natural resources of Harar (in preparation). The 1977 famine also provided an impetus to promote conservation. [29] ploughing the land to soften the land takes three months and from sowing and seedling to the harvesting of the crops requires three to four months. The Ethiopian Government set up the Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP) to reach certain goals between 2011 and 2015. With 22% of children aged 5 to 14 working in the informal sector, the Department reported that "government efforts to address child labor have not sufficiently targeted sectors with a high incidence of child labor",[26] and cattle herding still figures among the goods listed in the DOL's List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor published in December 2014. Forestland, most of it in the southwestern part of the country, accounted for 4 percent of the total land area, according to the government. Major Types of Taxes in Ethiopia. GETAHUN, A. history of Ethiopia. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. [5], Before the Ethiopian Revolution, pulses and oilseeds played an important role, second only to coffee, in the country's exports. The major product in are teff, wheat, maize, sesame, Niger, linseed etc. But Since the last two decades, there has been a complete and dynamic change in the history of Ethiopia's agriculture. You could not be signed in, please check and try again. The economy of Ethiopia is based largely on low productive rain-fed agriculture where production heavily depends on rain for its success or failure. Agriculture and social protection in Ethiopia are inextricably interconnected. About three-quarters of the total sheep flock is in the highlands, whereas lowland pastoralists maintain about three-quarters of the goat herd. Since agriculture currently dominates Ethiopia’s economy and employment, however, there is an issue as to what its role should be in getting from here to there. INTRODUCTION Eighty-three percent of the population depends directly on agriculture for their livelihoods, while many others depend on agriculture-related cottage industries such as textiles, Though the raising of livestock always has been largely a subsistence activity,[20] intensive, factory farm facilities are gaining in popularity and are present in Addis Ababa and Debre Zeit, run by Ethiopian agribusiness ELFORA. It puts a heavy toll on the resource base and the economy. In fact, since 2001 the per capita income in certain rural areas has risen by more than 50 percent, and crop yields and availability have also increased. Meat and milk yields are low and losses high, especially among calves and young stock. The clearing of land for agricultural use and the cutting of trees for fuel gradually changed the scene, and today forest areas have dwindled to less than 4% of Ethiopia's total land. See, for example, Central Statistical Authority of Ethiopia, "National Statistical Abstract. The beneficial climate in the Highlands of Ethiopia also enabled irrigation and other advanced agricultural technology. Approximately 25% of Ethiopia's population depended directly or indirectly on coffee for its livelihood. Agriculture has been practiced for centuries in Ethiopia. [5], By the mid-1960s, many sectors of Ethiopian society favored land reform. In addition, it is hoped that the number of key crops are doubled from 18.1m metric to 39.5m metric tonnes. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of African History, Early States and State Formation in Africa, Historical Preservation and Cultural Heritage, Reconstructing Seed History in One Case (Ethiopia), 1938–1990, Trends in Cereal Seed/Cropping: Ethiopia, 1963–1990, Discussion of the Literature and Primary Sources, https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190277734.013.255. 1. Over the centuries, deforestation, overgrazing, and practices such as cultivation of slopes not suited to agriculture have eroded the soil, a situation that worsened considerably during the 1970s and 1980s, especially in Eritrea, Tigray, and parts of Gondar and Wollo. Among the popular games on the grasslands, football (introduced via schools) tends to replace the traditional qarsa game. [25], Most of Ethiopia's estimated 48 million sheep and goats are raised by small farmers who used them as a major source of meat and cash income. But in the northern highlands, where title to farm land was shared amongst members of descent groups, many people resisted land reform. Ensete flour constitutes the staple food of the local people. As a result, vegetable oils are widely used, and oilseed cultivation is an important agricultural activity. Consequently, the country faced a famine that resulted in the death of nearly 1 million people from 1984 to 1986. Bulletin, 1st year, vol. Consequently, individual holdings were frequently far smaller than the permitted maximum allotment of ten hectares. Sorghum and millet, which are drought resistant, grow well at low elevations where rainfall is less reliable. Individual poultry farms supply eggs and meat to urban dwellers. In the highlands, oxen provided draft power in crop production. ", Table D.2. Domestically, coffee contributed about 20% of the government's revenue. [5], The effect of the Derg's land reform program on food production and its marketing and distribution policies were among two of the major controversies surrounding the revolution. These regions are condemned to the strictly enforced division of labor rules set by the North. Practically all animals are range-fed. James C. McCann is associate professor of history and director of the African Studies Center at Boston University. The program, designed for rural development, was first introduced in a project called the Chilalo Agricultural Development Union. However, the expected level was not achieved. Second, because peasants faced food shortages, they gave priority to cereal staples to sustain themselves. It contributes the largest amount in national GDP compared to Industrial and service sector. It focusses on Ethiopia and provides a broad overview of some of the key developments in agriculture. However, the expected level was not achieved. In addition, increased peasant consumption caused shortages of food items such as teff, wheat, corn, and other grains in urban areas. While Ethiopia’s plow agriculture dominated the region’s political ecology over more than two millennia, in the late 20th century Ethiopia’s agrarian economy began an inexorable set of changes. According to the World Bank, agricultural production increased at an average annual rate of 0.6 percent between 1973 and 1980 but then decreased at an average annual rate of 2.1 percent between 1980 and 1987. It has been partially sustained by … A number of factors could be mentioned. Mengistu told the 1989 WPE party congress that at US$0.32 per kilogram, foreign-exchange earnings from coffee would have dropped by 240 million Birr, and government revenue would have been reduced by 140 million Birr by the end of 1989. By Dr. Richard Pankhurst. Mia MacDonald and Justine Simon (2010) Climate, Food Security, & Growth: Ethiopia's Complex Relationship with Livestock. [21], However, herding cattle is one of the agricultural activities that resorts to indentured labor and particularly child labor according to the U.S. Department of Labor. Accordingly, state farms received a large share of the country's resources for agriculture; from 1982 to 1990, this totaled about 43% of the government's agricultural investment. Almost the entire rural population was involved in some way with animal husbandry, whose role included the provision of draft power, food, cash, transportation, fuel, and, especially in pastoral areas, social prestige. Given the agrarian nature of the country, where agriculture is a principal ... agriculture accounts for 90 percent of foreign exchange earnings and 50 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP)(Tadesse, 1999). Probably the one of the greatest development problem facing Ethiopia today is population explosion. The plough shaft, beam and ploughshare are made of wood and the sickle, pick axe, plow are made of metal. To implement this strategy, the government relied on peasant associations and rural development, cooperatives and state farms, resettlement and villagization, increased food production, and a new marketing policy. A 1979 study showed that around Addis Ababa individual holdings ranged from 1.0 to 1.6 hectares and that about 48 percent of the parcels were less than one-fourth of a hectare in size. Agriculture is the mainstay of Ethiopian economy involving major source of employment and gross national product. History of irrigation in Ethiopia . Ethiopia is also Africa's second biggest maize producer. [5] Despite government efforts, farmers responded less than enthusiastically. The poor performance of agriculture was related to several factors, including drought; a government policy of controlling prices and the free movement of agricultural products from surplus to deficit areas; the unstable political climate; the dislocation of the rural community caused by resettlement, villagization, and conscription of young farmers to meet military obligations; land tenure difficulties and the problem of land fragmentation; the lack of resources such as farm equipment, better seeds, and fertilizers; and the overall low level of technology. These programs should also result in Ethiopia getting to middle income status by 2025. James C. McCann is associate professor of history and director of the African Studies Center at Boston University. Their agrarian adaptation to new methods, new materials, and a new climate will play itself out in existing geographies and natural contours. Another study, of Dejen awraja (subregion) in Gojjam, found that land fragmentation had been exacerbated since the revolution. Writing in the 1920’s he says, “The Sahara carries more agricultural history than Egypt.” N.I. (1974). ", Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research website, "National Growth and Transformation Plan", "Ethiopia's transforming wheat landscape: tracking variety use through DNA fingerprinting", "Press release: Rust-resistant bread wheat varieties widely adopted in Ethiopia, study shows » CGIAR Research Program on WHEAT", "Livestock Sample Survey (AgLVS 2006), version 1.0", USGC Reps Meet With Ethiopian Feed Industry to Assess Market Barriers, "Ethiopia, 2013 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor", "Transhumance in the Tigray highlands (Ethiopia)", Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Agriculture_in_Ethiopia&oldid=997751550, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from April 2015, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2008, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 January 2021, at 01:46. In pastoral areas, livestock formed the basis of the economy. The agricultural sector suffers from frequent drought and poor cultivation practices. The primary objective of this dissertation is to reconstruct the history of the Omotic societies of southwestern Ethiopia. agricultural extension service delivery in Ethiopia has its impact on the development of country. [2] Many other economic activities depend on agriculture, including marketing, processing, and export of agricultural products. Hence, fewer people send their cattle in transhumance.[27]. State farms sold their output to the AMC. It purchased grain from peasant associations at fixed prices. Camels also play a key role as pack animals in areas below 1,500 meters in elevation. Although the AMC had agents in all regions, it was particularly active in the major cereal producing regions, namely, Gojjam, Shewa, Arsi, and Gondar. Still sleep the highlands: A study of farm a~d livestock systems in the central highlands of Ethiopia, Highlands … "The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia: Selected Issues Series", "National Statistical Abstract. These farmers, whose output is predominantly cereal crops, account for 95% of the agricultural production in Ethiopia. This includes: bolstering smallholder farmers’ productivity, enhancing marketing systems, upgrading participation of private sector, increasing volume of irrigated land and curtailing amount of households with inadequate food. During the rainy seasons, water and grass are generally plentiful, but with the onset of the dry season, forage is generally insufficient to keep animals nourished and able to resist disease. Although the MPPs improved the agricultural productivity of farmers, particularly in the project areas, there were many problems associated with discrimination against small farmers (because of a restrictive credit system that favored big landowners) and tenant eviction. The History of Epidemics in Ethiopia, 6. [13], About 98 percent of the coffee was produced by peasants on smallholdings of less than a hectare, and the remaining 2 percent was produced by state farms. Villagization in Ethiopia began as a regional operation in Bale during the Ethio-somalia war in 1977/78. Much of the food deficit was covered through food aid. "National Statistical Abstract. "Agriculture" (and subsections). This is the best way to achieve food security in Ethiopia and in the whole region, but this requires a … In 1971 the Ministry of Agriculture introduced the Minimum Package Program (MPP) to bring about economic and social changes. The first three are primarily cool-weather crops cultivated at altitudes generally above 1,500 meters. 1,2 In the country, one-third of rural households cannot produce adequate food to meet their subsistence needs as they cultivate less than half hectares of land per capita. Recent History. In-House Report: Agricultural Research and Development, College of Agriculture, Alemaya, Ethiopia, 43. These figures varied from those provided by the World Bank, which estimated that cropland, pasture, and forestland accounted for 13%, 41%, and 25%, respectively, of the total land area in 1987. [15], Ethiopia's flower industry has become a new source for export revenue. The ten-year plan called for an increase in the size of state farms producing coffee from 14,000-15,000 hectares to 50,000 hectares by 1994. Because of low rainfall, these soils have limited agricultural potential, except in some areas where rainfall is sufficient for the growth of natural forage at certain times of the year. 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